The Soviet zone, which became the German Democratic Republic or East Germanyoperated a centralized state-controlled radio service paralleling that of Moscow until But commercial FM service faltered for a time after as broadcasters focused on developing the more popular television and AM radio services.
Licensees are selected by the regulator on the basis of suitability and on the merits of the licence application and the capacity to serve identified community interests.
Italyfacing a severe shortage of medium-range frequencies, followed suit, providing its first FM services in the early s. Those stations with superior equipment and power were given the best frequencies.
Most programs on these early radio stations consisted of lectures and talks, some news, and Chinese music. Top 40 appealed primarily to teenagers and featured mostly rock and roll music. Clandestine broadcasting was almost exclusively a foreign phenomenon. His book, Pirate Radio Stationsis considered definitive and cited in most research on the subject.
Current Status of Micro Broadcasting The current or modern phase of unlicensed broadcasting began in the s. The Community radio station is located in Jimma University in the south-west of Ethiopia.
He died a few years later at age Aimee Semple McPherson began her radio broadcasts in the early s and even purchased her own station, KFSG which went on the air in February ; by the mids, controversial radio priest Father Charles Coughlin 's radio broadcasts were reaching millions per week.
Legal and Constitutional Considerations The legal and Constitutional issues that have developed over the years concerning the manner and legality of federal communications regulation have created the climate under which micro radio must operate.
It generally served up to a third of the British radio audience at any one time. These include the application of Constitutional free speech and access issues, the fact that Article 30 of the ITC had never been enforced by any nation in such a manner, and the question of how the United States would impose its new "jurisdiction" over international broadcasts Bender, For example, when Cumulus stock was trading in the high teens, they were paying multiples in the mid to high teens for stations because the acquisitions were accretive.
Bythe station had aired programming in 14 languages including live programs in Czech, Dutch, French and German. The debt component is also adjusted for an after-tax cost given the inherent tax deduction benefits relating to interest costs.
There is an economic model for business valuations that uses the calculation of a perpetuity value of cash flow to derive terminal value. There have been three cases of unlicensed off-shore broadcasting in the United States. The operators felt that Yonkers needed its own community radio station, so they built one.
Luitel lead Radio Sagarmatha during the King Gyanendra 's coup to save independent radio movement playing role as central spokesperson after February 1, They have been supporting the growth of this movement in countries of both Europe and Africa.
The Pyne show was the beginning of the confrontational talk format that later spread across the radio spectrum. Conservative talk radio and Progressive talk radio The United States saw dramatic growth in the popularity of talk radio during the s due to the repeal of the Federal Communications Commission 's post-war Fairness Doctrine ofin Requests were also made for grant of licences to NGOs and other non-profit making groups for running community radio stations.
HCJB was heard around the world and received hundreds of letters each week with reception reports from shortwave DXers. Further appeals were filed under the doctrine of "un-clean hands.
In either case, most countries were slow to define their radio policy, and the pattern of industry development was initially not clear. The larger the market, the more dominant the station or cluster of stations, the operating margin achieved by the station and the prospects for growth all factor into the selection of a multiple.
Even afterstate governments were slow in relinquishing monopoly control of radio broadcasting. Again, station and market data are the most helpful predictors in determining station value. Given the total destruction of their broadcasting systems, Poland, Greece, and much of the Soviet Union virtually had to start over.
These stations, in turn, rebroadcast its signals locally. Ministry of Information approved 17 community Radio  in Bangladesh: Paranormal radio shows have had a place on radio for several decades; while the format has never been successful on a full-time basis, it has proven popular in overnight graveyard slot.
For many countries, the years after World War II were focused on rebuilding or replacing prewar radio stations and network links. Interestingly, for the FCC to issue a fine, it did not need to have more than basic technical evidence of an infraction, in the form of radio detection finding FCC, d; correspondence by Andrew Yoder to FCC, Motivations Different unlicensed broadcasters have different reasons for violating the law.
Journal of Industrial Economics 17, 3 Sanjay Verma, Ambassador and Mr. Based on these areas of concern, the following research questions were posed: Several other stations were added throughout the decade and into the s. Kantako walked out of the hearing when the FCC refused to provide legal representation."America's Favorite Radio Station" by Michael B.
Kassel is an account of the creation, making, rise, and fall of the wonderful television comedy "WKRP in Cincinnati". INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF FIRE FIGHTERS. DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH, SAFETY AND MEDICINE.
Position on the Health Effects from Radio Frequency/Microwave (RF/MW) Radiation in Fire Department Facilities from Base Stations for Antennas and Towers for the Conduction of Cell Phone Transmissions. The God whom we served for so long a time always share to us His wisdom and blessings to everyone of us.
Thanks to our prayers for our AM Radio Station. Radio Universal, (Frequency MHz) is Bengaluru's 13 th radio station and second community radio station, launched on 21 Juneby Universal College. The station broadcasts from Vijaynagar Tollgate Circle, Magadi Main Road in Bengaluru.
Books & Literature. Podcasts. Bookworm (KCRW) A weekly radio show hosted by Boise State University President Bob Kustra that features lively conversations with some of the nation's leading authors about issues and ideas that matter today.
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